Glossary of Key Terms

The entrie below provide definitions for key terms used in the report.

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Affordable Housing

A state when a household’s housing costs are below 30 percent of the household’s income.


A framework for systems change in education designed to support communities, families and children with health, social, and education related support to ensure their ability to thrive and be successful from birth through college and beyond.

Digital Divide

Students (K-12) who do not have sufficient technology (in terms of internet connection or adequate hardware/devices) to study, learn, and complete assignments remotely.


DIBELS (or Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) is a measure of assessment for early literacy.


The intended or accomplished differential treatment of persons or social groups for reasons of certain generalized traits.

Disproportionate Discipline

Disproportionate discipline is a well documented and researched phenomenon in which students (typically Black and Brown) are punished more severely than their White counterparts or classmates, even when the offense is minor or the same.

Economic Inequality

The unequal distribution of income and opportunity among different groups in society.

Economic Mobility

Economic mobility is the ability of an individual, family or some other group to improve their economic status — usually measured in income.

Economically Disadvantaged

Economically disadvantaged students are students who are eligible for free and reduced price meals based on household income and size.

Non-economically disadvantaged students are students who are not eligible for free and reduced price meals based on their household income and size.


A term originally coined by Angela Duckworth, grit can be described as, continuing to work towards a challenge, maintaining effort as well as interest over time despite encountering adversity.

Growth Mindset

Students who believe that skill development is adaptable, and value effort are considered to possess a growth mindset.

Housing Cost Burden

A state when housing costs are at or above 30 percent of a household’s income. This state is considered to be a “severe housing cost burden” when housing costs are at or above 50 percent of a household’s income.

Housing Stability

The extent to which an individual’s customary access to housing of reasonable quality is secure.

Implicit Bias

How attitudes and stereotypes impact our understanding and decision-making in an unconscious way.

Income Achievement Gap

The academic achievement gap between students from high-income households compared to students from households with lower levels of income.

Income Insufficiency

Income insufficiency is a measure of financial hardship that compares family income to estimated family expenses.


IStation is an innovative education-focused technology that supports virtual and collaborative learning and instruction.

Mental Health

The successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity.


Panorama s a survey administered to families to learn more about their perceptions related to school performance and engagement. Survey results are used to inform school improvement plans. The survey focus areas include, barriers to engagement, roles and responsibilities, school safety, and family engagement.

School Report Card Grades

School report cards are a resource for parents, educators, elected officials, and community organizations and provide insightful information about how a specific school is fairing. A number of measures are included for each school report card such as, school performance by grade and subgroup, participation rate reporting, school safety, class size, school attendance, advance course enrollment, and more. For more information about school report card grades and to see all of the measures included please visit NC department of public instruction school report card page.

Self Efficacy

An individual’s belief in their ability to influence events or experiences that may impact their lives.

Self Management


Social and Emotional Learning

Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) is an integral part of education and human development. SEL is the process through which all young people and adults acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to develop healthy identities, manage emotions and achieve personal and collective goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain supportive relationships, and make responsible and caring decisions. Learn more about SEL

Social, Emotional, and Academic Learning (SEAL) refers to a team within the WS/FC school system that consults and works with families, students, teachers, administrators, and community partners to better support student well-being, social and emotional competencies and the ability of students to be academically successful.

Teacher Effectiveness

Teacher (or educator) effectiveness is measured using the North Carolina Educator Evaluation System which includes a self evaluation of teacher performance, opportunities for professional development and learning plans, feedback from educators, peers, and administration, and finally a discussion with evaluators to review the process and final ratings and findings.

Title I Schools

Title I schools receive federal financial assistance through local school districts and agencies supporting children from low-income households who may be experiencing economic and resource-related challenges.

Youth Risk Behavior Survey

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a biannual student self-report national school-based survey conducted by the Department of Public Health that monitors six categories of health-related behaviors.